Jan Hackaert (Amsterdam, 1628-1685).
Wooded landscape, cm 61 x 53.
Signature down, towards the center.
Jan Hackaert was born in Amsterdam in 1628 and was baptized there on February 1, 1628.
A highly respected painter of the Dutch Golden Age, Jan Hackaert was renowned for his synthesis of Italian landscapes and the rocky and wooded landscapes of Switzerland. Unfortunately, little is known about his background and background. Our most direct source comes from the Dutch "Vasari" of the painters of the Golden Age, the biographer Arnold Houbraken, who points out Hackaert's ability to create landscapes, especially "views of mountain caves in foreign countries" , inspired by her stay in Switzerland, between 1653 and 1656. According to Marjorie Wieseman, curator of Flemish and Dutch painting at the National Gallery in London, the attention paid by Hackaert to Switzerland would reflect the interest of the Dutch for trade routes transalpines crossing this country.
The first paintings dated from Hackaert date back to 1657. In 1658, documents mention that the artist resides on the edge of the Keizersgracht [Emperor's Canal] in Amsterdam. Although some of his landscapes are inspired by Italian painters, there is nothing to indicate that he has traveled to Italy. Hackaert was also influenced by Jan Both, whose sensitivity he shared for the idealized landscapes, bathed in a golden light. He was also inspired by the panoramic views of Jan Asselijn.
He collaborates on some works with many painters such as Nicolas Berchem and Adria van de Velde, where he paints landscapes in the background.
He died in 1685 in Amsterdam.
Hackaert's work is nevertheless distinguished by its dense forests with slender trees, as seen here: the scene takes place in a dense forest, where the sun penetrating the foliage between the thin barrels of the trees creates rich effects of light ; high ash surround a pond and are reflected in the water colored by the glow of the setting sun. On the right, a farmer leads a few sheep and a donkey to the shore, on which is perched a woman dressed in a red skirt.
"Wooded Landscape" has a prestigious history, having once belonged to French collectors:
Jules Porgès (1798-1870), a man of great distinction, full of intuition and finesse, owner of the Hotel Porgès in Paris housing his famous collection of Flemish paintings with several paintings by Rubens, Van Dick, Rembrandt, Bruegel Velvet and Le Lorrain.
Adolphe Schloss (1842-1910), an art collector born in Furth bei Landshut, chosen by the French nationality in 1871, at the time of the Franco-Prussian conflict, and his wife, Mathilde Lucie Haas, collected 333 works from the Netherlands. become a renowned collection before the First World War. After the death of Adolphe Schloss in 1910, the custody of the works returns to his wife Mathilde. In 1938, at his death, it was their children, Marguerite (1879-1959), Lucien, Henry and Juliette Schloss, who inherited them as undivided. In order to protect the paintings, the children took during the summer of 1939 the decision to move the collection to a place called Le Chambon in Laguenne, not far from Tulle, on the property of the Dutch bank Jordan, who had had some rooms built there. in the basement of the time of the German invasion of 1914. Moreover, the society Adolphe Schloss et fils is placed under the control of the judicial administrator Alexandre-Paul Monnot des Angles, as of November 1940, in the framework of the laws on the status of the Jews of the Vichy regime.
On April 10, 1943, the prefect of the Corrèze Fernand Musso13 gives the authorization to three officials of Vichy, including Jean-François Lefranc, Parisian expert in paintings, appointed administrator of Jewish property of high value by Darquier de Pellepoix, Commissioner General Jews, to search the estate of Chambon. The information had been provided to the authorities of Vichy by the driver who had transported the works in 1939.14 Musso and his gendarmes are trying to delay the departure of the paintings, which are removed by a German and two militiamen, belonging to the French Gestapo of the Lauriston Street. On 16 April, 56 cases are stored in a German barracks in Limoges, then in the coffers of the Banque de France agency15. However, Abel Bonnard finally authorized the German authorities to export them to Munich on November 27: meanwhile, the collection passes through the coffers of the Dreyfus bank in Paris and Bonnard ensures that the Louvre Museum preempts 49 paintings. Finally, 230 paintings leave for the Hitler Museum and 22 for the private collections of Goering. The remaining paintings were sold to a mysterious Dutch merchant named Buittenweg, 32 paintings16. A mystery remains on the fate of some paintings. Thanks to the scrupulous notes of Rose Valland, who sees the said paintings arrive at the Jeu de Paume in November 1943, we know the inventory before the departure to Germany; she is also careful to note that the paintings intended for Goering have been refused by him.
This looting is to be attributed to Bruno Lohse, head of the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR) and Erhard Goepel (1906-1966), who is in charge of the Hitler Museum's "Dutch painting" section. Once in Munich, the paintings are recorded by Hermann Voss (1884-1969), chief curator of the said museum, part of whose premises was devastated by the Allied Armies in 1945.
After the war, all the works are considered as lost but, gradually, 162 (including 49 canvases of the Louvre since 1945) could be restored to the right-holders, who will proceed to partial sales between 1949 and 1954, via the gallery Charpentier (Paris), under the hammer of Maurice Rheims assisted by Robert Lebel.
The work is described for the first time in 1926 by Dutch art historian and collector Hofstede de Groot in his Catalog raisonné of Flemish painters vol. 9 No. 83. The painting is again mentioned in 1949 in the sales catalog of the collection of the late M. Adolphe Scloss, lot 21, pl. XIV, reproduced in black and white and described.
The painting was cleaned at Taddei Davoli laboratory in Reggio Emilia.
It is accompanied by a diagnostic imaging report by specialist Alessandro Burani and a restoration report by Chiara Davoli.
The painting is presented in a frame in Louis XV style of the 19th century. Photographs from the Adolphe Schloss collection show how much of his paintings were presented in the same frame pattern.
Collection Jules Porgès, Collection Adolphe Schloss
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